Environmental Conditions faced by Army Equipments

Environmental Conditions faced by Army Equipments

The Present Day Battlefield: Let us imagine the battle field. In the modern day battlefield, there will be foot soldiers moving, vehicles, tanks, wheeled equipment, tracked equipment moving at different speeds, helicopters hovering and flying, fighter aircraft flying, diving and releasing their bombs. Ammunition being fired by infantry soldiers, artillery and armoured weapons are being fired , missiles are being fired from surface to surface, surface to air, air to air and air to surface. All this results into a thick layer of dust, smoke and noise besides leaving suspended particulate in the air. The moving vehicles add to the smoke dust, noise and vibrations while moving on uneven surfaces, where no roads exist. Add to this is the electronic noise created by electronic equipment in plenty – wireless sets, jammers, radars of all types, computers etc. Add to this are the climatic conditions prevailing which vary from heavy snow bound areas to hot deserts to dense humid jungles and moderate to heavy rains.

  1. All the above is the environment in which the equipment designed for the soldier is to function continuously and that too at optimal efficiency. It is therefore imperative that the equipment should cater for all the above. There is a need for entrepreneurs/ OEM to know the conditions which their product must be ready to face. Before we go through the details of weapons for various arms, there is a need to learn about environment specifications to be met. The specifications are given at JS55555 and JSSG(Joint Services Specifications Guide).

Environmental Conditions and Specifications to be Met for War Like Stores(Hardware)

 

  1. Environment would include temperature, humidity, dust, shock, vibrations etc. It also needs to be known how is the weapon to be mounted (ie on vehicle, on ground, on tank chassis, whether equipment / weapon is shelterised or in open) , where it has to be operated and whether it will be moved in unpacked / packed condition. A sample table containing type of tests for a shelterised equipment, to be installed on wheels is at Appendix A.

 

  • Temperature The equipment may be used in deserts in summers and in high altitude areas in winters and has to be able to function in temperatures as high as +55°C and as low as -30°C. In addition, when the equipment is stored it experiences higher temperatures in deserts and lower in high altitude. Thus, the equipment has to meet two temperature ranges
    • Operating temperature +55°C+/-3°C to -30°C +/-3°C
    • Storage temperature +70°C+/-3°C to -40°C +/-3°C

The importance is that the equipment should be able to function immediately after taking it out from storage.

 

  • Dust Equipment has to function under conditions of heavy dust and hence must be sealed to prevent ingress of the same and therefore needs to meet Ingress Protection (IP)standard. IP 68 is desirable for equipment.
  • Water             The role of the equipment decides whether it needs to be water proof, water resistant or water repellent. The surface and the gaskets of the equipment have to be incorporated accordingly to meet the IP specification.
  • Wind Speed This is specific to poles, tentage and shelters and directly linked to the altitude upto which the equipment is expected to be used. These equipment should be able to sustain wind speeds upto 120 Km/ hour
  • Humidity All equipment must be able to function under humidity conditions of 95%.
  • Vibrations It may be surprising, but vibrations are a very important consideration. This is because when equipment is loaded in vehicle and moved, it experiences vibrations. In battle field, it also experiences vibrations when explosions occur around the equipment. The platform on which the equipment is mounted also effects ie whether it is a static platform or a vehicle, or a tank or the equipment has to be kept on ground during operation. Moreover, during movement, the type of packing also matters.
  • Drop All equipment should be able to sustain a drop of minimum 3 feet in unpacked condition without breakages.
  • Corrosion All items should be corrosion proof and rust proof.
  • Fire Proof/ Fire Retardant/ Fire Resistant It must be clarified from the user, whether any such standard is to be met.
  • Water Proof/ Water Resistant / Water Retardent It must be clarified from the user whether any such standard is to be met
  • Endurance In case the equipment is meant for war, it should be able to be operated continuously for minimum 72 hours and at a stretch for 7 days with minimum break.
  • Electronic Electrical Items All electronic items need to meet Electromagnetic Interference / Electromagnetic Compatibility(EMI/EMC) standards
    • Individual items to meet EMI/ EMC standard as per MIL Std 461 D / F.
    • Individual items inside shelter (may be COTS / MOTS) to meet Limit B of commercial standards so as not to interfere with each other.

 

  1. Endurance Testing. Each systems / sub systems / accessories should be tested for satisfactory performance of minimum 7 days continuously (or as required for envisaged operations).
  2. Power Sup / Back Up. Power sup / back up must be available for minimum 72hours of continuous running of equipment.

Conclusion

 

  1. These environment specifications are to be adhered to generally. However, specific equipment may have specific requirements depending on how they are to be installed, operate in which terrain and under what conditions. It is advisable that before offering an equipment catalogue, the OEM/ vendors must get complete details of the environment as it may entail customization of equipment and has an impact on the cost.

 

Appendix A

(Refer to para 2)

 

JSS 55555 : 2000

Revision No. 2

TABLE 3-3-8 APPLICABLE TESTS AND RECOMMENDED SEQUENCE FOR GROUND EQUIPMENT PARTIALLY PROTECTED (INSTALLED IN WHEELED VEHICLES) CLASS L2H (Clause 3.1)
Serial No TESTS TEST NUMBER
1. Vibration (Refer table 4.28.2 S11 & 4) & 4.28.3) (See Note 8) 28
2. High temperature (Procedure 6. Test Condition ’M’) 17
3. Damp heat 10
4. Low temperature (Test Condition ‘J’) 20
5. Altitude 3
6. Rapid temperature cycling (see Note 1) 22
7. Sealing (see Note 2) 23
8. Dust 14
9. Tropical exposure (14 Cycles) 27
10. Mould growth (see Note 3 & 4) 21
11. Corrosion (salt) (Procedure 2) (see Note 3, 4 & 5) 9
12. Contamination (see Note 1 & 5) 6
13. Drop (see Note 6) 13
14. Toppling (see Note 7) 26
15. Bump 5
16. Bounce/Road ability (see Note 8) 4/29

 

Col Manoj Mehrotra
Col Manoj Mehrotra

Col Manoj Mehrotra is an alumni of the National Defence Academy and has now retired after 33 years of service. He was commissioned in the Army Air Defence and has a rich experience in different designations as well as locations. He has also been Principal Consultant to Department of Urban Development, Govt. of MP for Smart City Projects. He can be reached at manoj_42ch@yahoo.co.in or via LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/col-manoj-mehrotra-retd-20764422

About the Author

 

Vipul Mehrotra
Vipul Mehrotra

Vipul Mehrotra is a seasoned management professional. Honourable Member of various Think Tanks and Associations in Defence & Security. He contributes in multiple research organizations and publications with his domain expertise in Defence & Security. He is a Strategic Nationalist, Visiting Faculty to many corporates and management institutes, Concept creator, Motivator, Public Speaker, Brand Evangelist, Researcher, Historian, Geopolitical Analyst, Traveller, Trainer, Mentor, Maker, Author and a Laureate with 20+ Professional Certifications, Recommendations and 5000+ Followers. He can be reached through his LinkedIn Profile: www.linkedin.com/in/vipul-mehrotra

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